There are five CKD stages starting from the very first mild stage, also called stage 1 to stage 5, which is complete kidney failure. The stages are judged by how efficient processing your kidney shows in filtering out waste from your blood.
CKD, also known as Chronic Kidney Disease, happens when a kidney or both in a human being shows abnormalities and incorrect functioning. A patient is said to have CKD in the case he is showing the symptoms for more than three months. However, it is advisable to have a check-up as soon as you judge the abnormal functioning in kidneys.
The best way to measure how well a kidney is filtering waste is by measuring the filtration rate at bowman’s capsule, also known as estimated glomerular filtration rate or eGFR. It can be easily determined by taking a blood sample and find the amount of wasted mingled with it. Chronic kidney disease stages are based on these numbers. Let us see in a detailed way.
CKD Stages and Symptoms
CKD Stage 1
Stage 1 means you are experiencing very mild kidney damage. The eGFR can be 90 or greater.
In most of the cases when eGFR is 90 or greater, the kidneys are healthy and well working, but one can have other signs and symptoms of damage. These can be protein in your urine or any physical damage.
CKD Stage 2
The estimated GFR is between 60 to 89, which means you have mild kidney damage.
Like Stage 1, in most of the cases, the kidneys are well working. But Stage 2 is an alert of kidney damage even if your eGFR is normal. There can be signs like protein in your urine or any physical damage.
CKD Stage 3
The eGFR lies between 30 to 59. And that is the proper sing of damage to your kidney. These cases have kidneys not working as well as they should.
CKD Stage 3 has a further two stages.
- Stage 3a, the eGFR lies between 45 and 59
- Stage 3b, the eGFR level lies between 30 and 44
Many people show no symptoms in Stage 3, but some are there who show symptoms like swelling in hand and feet, back pain, and inconsistent urination. This stage is the beginning of some major health problems such as High Blood Pressure, Anaemia, and Bone Disease.
CKD Stage 4
The estimated GFR lies between 15 to 29. Now you should give a high priority and have check-ups and prescriptions because your kidneys are moderately or severely damaged. They are also not functioning correctly.
At this CKD Stage, symptoms can be swelling in your blood exposed area due to unhealthy nitrogenous blood circulating in your body. Major health problems are specific to occur in such circumstances like Anaemia, high blood pressure, and bone disease.
CKD Stage 5
The eGFR is less than 15, and your kidney is near to face failure. If it fails, there will be nitrogenous waste build up in your body. It will make you very sick.
CKD Stage 5 symptoms are as follows:
- Feeling Sick
- Feel no appetite
- Pain in your bones
- Trouble sleeping
- Trouble breathing
- Inconsistent urinating
- Swelling in hands and feet
- Muscles Cramp
Once your kidney fails, you will require a kidney transplant or dialysis over the artificial kidney.
CKD Stages treatment
Stages 1 or 2 treatment
It is good to maintain a balanced diet while you are in CKD stages 1 or 2. You must have a regular check-up of your blood pressure and keep an eye on blood sugar levels. Smoking and chewing tobacco is highly dangerous and can throw you to stage 4 or 5. Consulting a doctor is a good thing, they may suggest you some medicine to protect your kidneys. A nephrologist in Hyderabad can better understand the current state of your kidney, so make sure you have an appointment with them.
Stage 3 treatment
A healthy diet should be followed. Meet with a dietician if possible. Control your blood pressure and sugar level. Apart from doing everything that is required in CKD stages 1 and 2, you must have a periodic check-up to a nephrologist (kidney doctor). Have a blood pressure monitor machine if possible.
Stage 4 treatment
Apart from having regular appointments with a nephrologist, you should take special blood pressure medicines like ARBs and ACE inhibitors.
Stage 5 treatment
Preparation for Dialysis – At stage 5, your kidney might stop functioning, and that will be called kidney failure. Dialysis helps filter and clean your blood by an artificial method.
Preparation for transplant – Kidney transplant is a surgery replacing a working kidney with a non-working kidney. If you can find a living kidney, you may not require dialysis and artificial living.